Montessori language activities help children to develop into confident communicators. The Montessori Method recognises the value of spoken language as the foundation for literacy. The child is surrounded with opportunities for communication with the purpose of developing both receptive (listening) as well as expressive (verbal and nonverbal) skills. Singing songs, reading stories, playing I spy games, building vocabulary using language cards, learning the sounds of letters (phonetics), building words are some examples of how literacy is promoted in the environment. Introducing letters by sound leads to an awareness that words are made up of sounds. With experience, the children begin to build confidence to engage with written expression. Stories and word games, and directed language activities are all part of language development and help form a cognitive base for reading and writing. The multi-aged grouping of children means younger children have many opportunities to interact with more expressive older children.